Gustavo Bueno (1924-2016) was a Spanish philosopher and academic who developed a philosophical system called "materialism filosófico" (philosophical materialism). He was born in Spain and studied philosophy at the University of Madrid, where he later became a professor. Bueno's philosophical system sought to provide a materialist alternative to both idealism and traditional materialism, which he argued were both inadequate. He believed that the material world was the ultimate reality, but also emphasized the importance of cultural and historical factors in shaping human knowledge and understanding. Bueno was a prolific writer and published numerous books and articles on a wide range of philosophical topics, including ontology, epistemology, ethics, and political philosophy. He was also a controversial figure, and his ideas were often criticized by other philosophers and intellectuals. Despite his controversial status, Bueno had a significant impact on Spanish philosophy and was influential in promoting materialist philosophy in the Spanish-speaking world.